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HISTORY OF PRINTING 



IN 



ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 
179S-1931 



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BY 

SCOTT H. PARADISE 

Instructor^ Phillips Academy 



Published and printed by 
THE ANDOVER PRESS 



Property op the 
MEMORIAL HALL LIBRARY 

. ^ ^ANpo\neR ^ . 

^ift of Anaover Prei? 



330 00 133 8304 




■And. Coll. 36273 

655.17 

Paradise, scott H 

A history of printing in 
Andover. Massachusetts 






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MEMORIAL HALL LIBRARY 

ANDOVER, MASS. 



This book may be kept for fourteen davs 

two weeks oyer the time wUl be sent for at 
the borrower's expense. 

Books lost or damaged must be paid for. 



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A HISTORY OF PRINTING 

IN 

ANDOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 



AWDOVER MliNTlIS'G ESTAliLlSHMExMT. 



STEREOTYPER, PRINTER, AND PUBLISHER. 

OppositePbillips Academy, Andover, Mass. 

J. J). F. would respectfully call the particular attention 
of his friends and customers, both far and near, to the un- 
usual facilitiesof his establishnaent for manufacturing books 
of every description, from thesmallest pocket edition to the 
royal octavo; and deriving the advantages of steam in pro- 
pelling three of the Impkoved Adams Presses of the 
larger size, we feel confident in our ability to manufacture 
books, for authors and publishers, on the most rca.<onable 
terms. It will be borne in mind, also, that we have the 
'• Improved Dickinson Stercotijpe Foundry'' connected with 
the above establishment, as well as a large Compositors' 
Department, capable of employing more than twenty 
compositors, on stereotype or letter-press works, in all the 
different classical languages. And we would invite the 
particular attention of scholars to our variety of type in 
foreign languages, 

SPECIMENS OF TYPE. 

I)^n nTcfvpxH Ticc5.^i Coptic. 

n ibr n Armenian. 
Liil yjb 15^*^^ <X&>t Arabic. 

\j-kAlo Iro] \l(5)^ Syriac. 
Or^ZA ^^^nr ^^5 Samantan. 

PlS V^T^b P")j.r^nf)l3 Rabbinic. 

Jiinf S5iicf)cr gehortcn 5[)?cfe. German. 

rx n^n?x xxa rr^qx^a Hebrew. 

'Ev apx^ riv 6 Aoyos Porsonian Greek. 

'Ev (iQxi ^;^ Xo'/qg Tauchnitz Greek. 

Besides, we have all the different varieties and sizes of 
English Type, amounting to some twenty or more kinds, 
which are neccssarv in the execution of work. 



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Advertisement appearing February ig, i8jj in Vol. I, No. i, of 
the old ''Advertiser'' 



A History of Printing 



IN 



<^ndover^ ^JACassac/iuseUs 
1798-1931 



Bv 

SCOTT H. PARADISE 

Instructor^ Phillips Academy 



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Published and printed hy 
THE ANDOVKR PRKSS 






NOTE 

This article was prepared by Mr. Scott 
Paradise at the request of the Ando\er 
Historical Society as a part of Andover's 
contribution to the Massachusetts Bay 
Tercentenary Celebrations of 1930. With 
the cooperation of the Andover Historical 
w Society it is now being published by the 

Andover Press. 



CD 



The photographs on pages 8, 10 and 12 
are used by courtesy of Phillips Academy. 



3 8? 73 




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FOREWORD 

Harvard College was founded in 1636. Two years later 
Har\ard imported the first printing press ever to be used 
in this country. 

In 1778 Phillips Academy, Andover, was established. 
Some years later, the first principal of the Academy and 
co-founder of the Theological Seminary, realizing the 
magical importance of the press in the propagation of 
ideas, reorganized the existing printery to make Andover's 
institutions a more effective power in the educational and 
religious world, thus starting the press in Ando\er on its 
long and notable history. 

The present x\ndover Press, building on noble traditions, 
is today, perhaps the best known school and college print 
shop in New England. The books from its presses are to be 
found in every state in the Union and in not a few foreign 
countries. Following is the story of its one hundred thirty- 
three years of growth. 




Eliphalet Pearson 




^N August 1912 an old brick Iniilding was torn 
down which had stood for eighty years close to 
the Phillips Academy campus. It was the build- 
ing connected with the famous Andover Printing House 
which one hundred years ago had done so much to 
make Ando\er Hill a theological and spiritual power 
throughout the whole world. 

When Eliphalet Pearson, the first principal of Phillips 
Academy, for twenty years professor and sometime acting 
President at Har\'ard, returned to Ando\er in 1806 to 
propose the establishment of America's first theological 
seminary, there were two great aims which he wished to 
accomplish. The first was to create a stronghold of 
Calvinism, which might counteract the spirit of Uni- 
tarianism then spreading at Har\ard. The second was to 
make the new seminary a place not only for acquiring but 
for improving the literature of theology, and especially to 
provide for the publication of learned treatises. 

As early as 1798 Messrs. Ames and Parker had set up 
a printing press in Andover. Galen Ware w^as conducting 
it in 1 810, and in 181 3, five years after the founding of the 
Seminary, this press was enlarged through the enterprise 
of Dr. Pearson and established on the second floor of the 
"Old ^Hill Store". This was an ugly, angular building 
built in 1 810 near the present site of the P. A. E. Society 
House by Deacon Mark Newman wiio, though principal 
of Phillips Academy from 1795 to 1809, had now retired 
as bookseller to the Academy and Seminary folk, and 
publisher of religious treatises. 



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Eliphalct Pearson was indeed fortunate in the type of 
men he found to conduct his pet enterprise, one which 
was far to exceed his hopes in the production of a whole 
library of theological literature. Timothy Flagg and 
Abraham J. Gould, the two first proprietors, were both 
members of the South Church, the latter holding the ofiice 
of deacon for twenty-three years. They were both in hearty 
sympathy with the aims of the theological institution their 
work was to ser\e, and regarded their press as a trust to be 
used in furthering religious faith. These estimable men set 
the lofty tone which was to sur\ive as long as the old press 
endured, and which with the cooperation of the Seminary 
faculty was to gi\'e it such a high reputation in the educa- 
tional and religious world. 

A good illustration of the religious spirit which per\aded 
even the workmen in the organization appears in the story 
of Josiah B. Clough, for many years a compositor there 
and the father of the eccentric Miss Elizabeth Clough. 
E\ery Sunday morning he was seen to pass clown Central 
Street at a regular hour, and piqued by curiosity, someone 
finally asked him the purpose of his weekly pilgrimage. 
Mr. Clough confessed that he went to pray on the steps of 
the Baptist Church, which w^as then closed, that ser\ices 
might be resumed. In 1858, after the "Great Awakening," 
his prayers were answered. 

The new press was fortunate in ha\ing the first fonts of 
Greek and Hebrew type in America, and for years Har- 
\ard Unixersity had any necessary printing in the Greek 
type done in Ando\ cr. One of the first books published 
here was Professor Moses Stuart's Hebrew grammar. 
Naturally enousrh, Professor Stuart found that no one 



THE 



SAIxNT'S 



EVERLASTING REST; 



A TRF.ATISE OF THE FtF-SFn STATK OF TOE SAINT? IN THEIR 
KNJOV.Mr,.\T OF 



GOD IN ZSBAVCN. 



WRITTEN BY THE REVEREND, LEARNED AND PIOUS 



MR. RICH-\RD BAXTER. 



ABRIDGED BY BENJAMIN FAWCETT, M. A. 



AN DOVER: 

I'RINTED BV I l.At-t. AND COCLD. 

lZ-24. 



Title page of a typical book printed over a century ago 



knew how to set Hebrew type, so he went to work to set it 
himself. An unusual picture he must have made, "tall, 
lean, with strong, bold features, a keen, scholarly, ac- 
cipitrine nose, great solemnity of \oice and manner," his 
air Roman, his neck long and bare like Cicero's, as he bent 
over the type cases in the little printing plant. Although he 
suffered acutely from dyspepsia. Professor Stuart was a 
tireless and productixe worker, but when his malady 
interfered with his labors, his voice could be heard from 
his study, rising and falling in a wailing prayer for relief 
We may well wonder if there were not occasions when, 
attacked by his uncomfortable illness and confronted with 
a task so exacting and unfamiliar, his prayers did not also 
resound from the windows of Flagg and Gould, At length 
Professor Stuart taught his compositor to do the work, and 
his Hebrew grammar, published in 1813 and the first 
printed in America, was for more than thirty years the 
standard among theological seminaries. Other outstand- 
ing books printed for local authors included Robinson's 
j\ew Testament Lexicon, Porter's Rhetorical Reader, Stuart's 
Letters to Channing, and many other classical and religious 
works. 

In 1 82 1, Dr. John Codman, pastor of the Second 
Church in Dorchester, contributed $2,000 for the purchase 
of additional type to be used in printing the Greek and 
Hebrew tongues, and books printed from this type were 
inscribed as from the Codman Press. William Bartlet and 
others soon made similar contributions, and by 1829 the 
press had type for elexen Oriental languages besides 
Hebrew, and many books were issued there which could 
not ha\e been printed at any other press in America. 




Warren F. Draper 



William H. Grey, an English compositor later working 
for the press was capable of setting type in all of tliese 
eleven languages. 

Many a Seminary graduate carried the inspiration 
derived from the work of the press and of Professor Stuart 
with him to far off mission fields and allowed no difficul- 
ties of language to prevent the wTiting and printing of 
religious works. According to Professor Park's speech at the 
Centennial in 1878, Andover alumni had written scores 
and hundreds of volumes in the tongues of the Mahratta 
and Tamil, Arabic and Syriac, Armeno-Turkish and 
Arabo-Turkish, Chinese, Japanese, Cherokee, Choctaw, 
the various languages of Africa, and the islands of the 
seas. Fired by the same inspiration they had not only 
written grammars and lexicons, but had invented alpha- 
bets for languages where none existed before; they had not 
only written, but had printed the books they wrote; they 
had not only set the type, but had occasionally made the 
type with their own hands. With a note of justifiable 
elation Professor Park concludes, "There is no man now 
living who can read the alphabets of all the languages in 
which the alumni of our Seminary ha\e published their 
thoughts." 

No less impressive than its spiritual inspiration was the 
material output of the old Ando\er press. According to 
the calculation of Mr. Warren F. Draper, its last proprietor, 
the press published during seventy years separate titles, 
the aggregate of which would form 233 octavo \olumes of 
500 pages each. Of these more than one hundred were 
written by Andover professors and attained a circulation 
of 400,000. Dealers sold these books in Boston, New 




Brick House on the Hill, for over thirty years home of the press 



York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Oberlin and Chicago. 
Tracts printed o\er loo years ago were sold through 
dealers throughout the country- including what was then 
Michigan territorv-. But the brilHant wi\es and daughters 
of the professors were not to be left behind. Six of them 
issued books through the Ando\ er press which had a cir- 
culation of at least a million. These women, among whom 
were some of the most popular authoresses of the day, 
were Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom^s 
Cabin, whose husband was a professor at the Seminar\-, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Stuart. Phelps, Miss EHzabeth Stuart 
Phelps, Mrs. Sarah Stuart Robbins, Mrs. Harriet Woods 
Baker, and Mrs. Margaret Woods Lawrence. 

An amusing ston,^ bearing on the Ando\ er press is told 
of an effort of the New York World to increase its circula- 
tion. In May, 1889, this journal printed in a single issue 
the entire text of the ''Book of Enoch, a translation from the 
Ethiopic, published a few years ago in Ando\er." 

"Send twentyrfi\e cents for a three months' subscription 
to the World,'' the advertisement threatened; "otherwise 
you will ha\e to send Si. 75 to W. F. Draper, of Andover, 
in order to procure a copy of this lost book of the Bible, 
hidden for 1800 years." 

We do not know what effect this nai\e announcement 
had on the World's subscription list, but it inevitably re- 
sulted in several orders for the complete text with introduc- 
tion and notes being recei\ ed in Ando\ er. After the press 
had remained in the Brick House o\er thirty years, Mr. 
Draper moved it in the late sixties to the Draper block 
at 37 Main Street where it remained until December, 
1906. 




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However, the old press did not confine itself solely to 
publishing the work of Andover professors and their 
wives. From it the first tracts of the American Tract So- 
ciety were issued and also the numbers of the Biblical 
Repository and the Bibliotheca Sacra and Theological Review, 
two religious periodicals which were popular eighty or 
ninety years ago. Also the first temperance newspaper in 
America, the Journal of Humanity; and Herald of the Ameri- 
can Temperance Society was published in Ando\er from 
May 27, 1829. This paper was the organ of the American 
Society for the Promotion of Temperance, which had been 
founded in Boston in 1826, largely through the efforts of 
Dr. Justin Edwards, pastor of the Old South Church 
from 1 81 2 to 1827, a trustee of Phillips Academy, and 
President of the Theological Seminary from 1836 to 1842. 
The Journal of Humanity lived for only four years. At this 
early stage of the temperance movement its circulation 
could not have been large, and it contained very little 
news to commend it to the non-temperance reader. Of 
advertisements, without which no paper can exist for long, 
it seldom printed more than a single column. 

For twenty years thereafter Andover was without a 
newspaper, but on February 19, 1853, the first number of 
the Andover Advertiser appeared. This was "published 
every Saturday at the office of John D. Flagg, opposite 
Phillips Academy." (The Academy building in those days 
was the present dining hall.) Mr. Flagg's establishment 
was on the second floor of the Brick House, erected in 1832 
near the present Phillips Gateway when the press had out- 
grown its old quarters, and which many Phillips alumni 
will remember as a boarding house run by Mrs. M. A. 



Toby. The size of the Advertiser was at first fourtc'cn by 
eleven inches, and it consisted of four pages with four 
columns to a page. It was always said to be conducted by 
an "Association of Gentlemen." These gentlemen, who 
wrote on a \ariety of topics and under a \aricty of names, 
were the Hon. George Foster, Mr. Eastman Sanborn, and 
Mr. Moses Foster, the cashier of the Ando\er bank. How- 
ever the first of the three did most of the work, and later 
conducted an Ando\er column in the Lawrence American. 
In May, 1855, Mr. Warren F. Draper, who the year before 
had bought the press, took o\er the paper from Mr. Flagg 
and published the Advertiser for ele\en years, then sold it to 
the Lawrence American. The last number appeared on 
February 10, 1866. 

Both Ando\er and the Andoxcr press were always 
fortunate in the type of men who controlled the publishing 
house and Warren F. Draper, the last and most notable 
of the long line of names associated with it, carried on the 
tradition of the "Christian business man." He was a 
graduate of Phillips Academy in 1843, of Amherst in 1847, 
and began his studies at the Ando\er Theological Semin- 
ary, but failing eyesight compelled him to resign. In 1849, 
he entered the employ of Allen, Morrill and Wardwell, 
then the proprietors of the press, and in 1854 became the 
sole proprietor. Before he relinquished control in 1887, he 
had published more than 600 \olumcs, some of which had 
a very large sale. He accumulated during his life a consid- 
erable fortune, a large part of which he de\oted to charit- 
able objects, his total donations to Ando\er institutions 
amounting to o\er Si 00,000. His most generous gifts were 
to Abbot Academy, New England's first pri\ate girls' 




A few of the many yearbooks printed by The Andover Press in igjo 



school, of which he was trustee and treasurer, but he also 
gave to Phillips Academy the Draper Prize Speaking 
Fund, Draper Cottage, and a scholarship. In March, 1904, 
the Andover town meeting passed a resolution of gratitude 
to Mr. Draper, who had done so much for the town, and 
who, on his eighty-fifth birthday, had sent Si, 000 to the 
selectmen to be used for the benefit of the school children. 
In 1887, Mr. Draper sold the press to a corporation of 
Andover business men, of which John N. Cole was treas- 
urer and business manager, and it at once established the 
present Andover Press publishing the Andover Townsman. 

The plant remained in the Draper Building until 
December 1906, when it moved to its new home, the Press 
Building, where it still is. Since that date several additions 
have been made to the building and modern machinery 
has been constantly added to meet the ever growing 
requirements of the business. 

The Andoxer press was a distinguished little plant a 
century ago, doing important work for the Seminary, 
Academy and Harvard. Today it prints for Phillips, 
Abbot, Harvard, Yale, the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology and numerous other institutions and com- 
mercial houses. It still is a distinguished, but much larger 
and more modern organization. Its present academic 
work is primarily for undergraduates. 

Of the forces that made Andover in the last century a 
world-renowned center of religious and spiritual life, the 
old Andover press was no small part. Working in close 
cooperation with the theological professors, whom they 
resembled in their religious enthusiasm, the Ando\'er 
printers did their share to spread Christianity to the far 





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Harvard and Tale athletic publications are printed at Andover 



corners of the earth, and to inspire those vvlio were work- 
ing at home and in the mission field witli fresii vigor. And 
perhaps not the least of their services was the stimulation 
they gave, by the recognition of feminine writers, to the 
development of woman's place in literature. 








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